Markos Kay is a visual artist, creative director, illustrator and lecturer based in London, United Kingdom. His work fuses science with visual art and deals with themes of emergence, evolution and complexity, as well as artificial life and generative art.
Made as a series of virtual experiments, Quantum Fluctuations shows the complexity and transient nature of the most fundamental aspect of reality, the quantum world, which is impossible to observe directly.
In the laboratory, elementary particles are observed by measuring the spoils of a proton collision and comparing the findings with data collected from supercomputer simulations. It is perhaps the most indirect method of observation imaginable, a non-representational form of observation mediated by computer simulations.
In Quantum Fluctuations, particle simulations are used as the brush and paint to create abstract moving paintings that visualise the events that happen during a proton collision. The film shows the intricate structure of the proton beams that collide to create an outflow of particle showers which create composite particles that eventually decay. These visualisations were created with input from scientists working on the Large Hadron Collider at the CERN, Geneva.
The underlying event arises from collisions between particles that do not directly participate in the main collision event.
The proton beams that collide in the LHC are made out of 2808 bunches consisting of 1.15x10^11 protons per bunch.
The main particle collision: "Event simulation normally begins with a relatively simple subprocess resulting from a highly energetic collision of constituents of colliding particle beams. For example, at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) a top quark-antiquark pair can be created in the collision of a pair of gluons or a light quark-antiquark pair from the incoming protons" (from Scholarpedia).
Accelerated particles emit radiation as gluons, the gluons themselves emit further radiation known as parton showers.
The particles emitted in the particle showers come together to form hadrons, which are composite particles such as protons, neutrons and mesons.
Finally any unstable configuration of particles will decay into stable states.